Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders in children, with a worldwide prevalence of around 5–7%. 1, 2 Characterised by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, ADHD is a developmental disorder that may persist across the lifespan.
Child and adolescent ADHD prevalence in Hong Kong is estimated to be
About 1-2 students with ADHD in a class of 30
3:1 Male to Female Ratio in ADHD patients
Tendency of lower sensitivity in identifying girls with ADHD leading to delaying in referral for professional diagnosis
Despite no known cause and cure for ADHD, a combination of medication and behavioural therapy has effectively reduced symptoms of hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity, showing promising improvements in many.
ADHD often co-occurs with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and substance use disorders. Early diagnosis and treatment are pivotal to help avoid significant detriments in different domains of life, including academic and work performance, interpersonal relationships, quality of life and more.
1. Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;164(6):942-8. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2007.164.6.942.
2. Thomas R, Sanders S, Doust J, Beller E, Glasziou P. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):e994-1001. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-3482.
Epub 2015 Mar 2. PMID: 25733754.
3. Liu A, Xu Y, Yan Q, Tong L. The Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Chinese Children and Adolescents. Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 16;8(1):11169. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29488-2. PMID: 30115972;