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Signs and Symptoms


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – as the name suggests, people with ADHD have weaker control over their attention and impulses than similarly aged peers. Although the cause of ADHD remains unclear, ADHD is believed to be linked with structural (e.g. pre-frontal cortex responsible for executive functioning) and functional (e.g. dopamine deficiency) impairments of the brain.​ ​


According to the definition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fifth edition (DSM-5), ADHD can be categorized into 3 major subtypes:

Predominantly Inattentive : Mainly presented symptoms of inattentiveness, fewer symptoms of hyperactivity


Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive : Mainly presented symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, fewer symptoms of inattentiveness

Combined : Both inattentive and hyperactive presentation criteria are met

Attention is critical in various aspects in our daily lives. There are also different subtypes of attention, such as:​

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Selective attention : Attending to class while ignoring noises from playground


Sustained attention : Reading a long article undistracted

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Alternating attention : Coming back to continue working on a task after a short break


Divided attention : multitasking; jotting down notes during active group discussion

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